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Larrea Extract ~ LarreaExtract.com

Larrea Extract

a much more helpful extract of larrea tridentata

 the renowned powerful natural herb also known as Chaparral or "Shegoi"

by Jon David Miller, M.A., M.Div., natural health wellness educator

 

Larrea Extract Now Available Again

(If you want to be well, try larrea extract.)

Click here for comparison of the (formerly) patented extract with  raw chaparral larrea.

 

CLICK HERE for additional help for the immune system.

 

Concerned About Viruses, Bacteria, Or Candida Yeast?

Larrea tridentata, also called Chaparral and "Shegoi", is a desert plant that has been shown throughout Native American tradition, herbology and medical history to offer significant positive immune assistance and help with pain. 

The historical use of the plant prompted a research and development process that has led to important discoveries about larrea.

Additionally, published research performed at several well-known medical research institutions, such as the Stanford University School of Medicine1, the University of Berne (Switzerland), The Johns Hopkins University2, and King's College London, have demonstrated that chemical compounds present in the larrea plant do possess health enhancing properties.

People with various immune challenges, including those viral in nature, have sought out larrea. It is good to have on hand for times of colds and flu, as well as for many other situations. There are viruses, yeasts and fungi, etc., at work in most of us beyond what you may realize.

 

Viruses Include Flu, Colds, Herpes, HPV, Epstein-Barr, CMV, HIV and More

Humans are bothered by viruses occasionally. Everyone is familiar with flu, colds and other issues with viruses.

Most of us have to deal with the challenge of the "common cold" every so often. Many take extra health precautions during cold and flu season. Depending on one's health status, the flu can be debilitating for several days.

The herpes virus is involved with cold sores, a.k.a. fever blisters, as well as "shingles", an outbreak of blisters on the skin and/or pain in the nerves, and genital sores. Chicken pox is also a form of herpes that most people have experienced.

There are different strains of herpes, eg., herpes simplex and herpes zoster. Herpes has been linked with Alzheimer's, lupus, MS, some forms of cancer, "Epstein-Barr" (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), chronic fatigue and other problems. Genital herpes can be a great nuisance.

NOTE: Nearly EVERYONE has at least one type of Herpes virus, and most people have several, as well as other viruses. They may be active and bothersome; or they may be working behind the scenes, altering and breaking down cells that could lead to symptoms later when the immune system is weaker.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is even more common than herpes. It can be found in skin tissues and mucus membranes in the genital zones of both women and men. There are usually no symptoms, but some types are involved with genital warts, and others with cervical or vaginal cancer (women), cancer of the penis (men), and anal cancer as well.

Other viruses are sometimes announced and described as more serious. Government agencies and the media periodically warn about a pandemic that may arise from a strain of virus they think could rapidly spread widely around the world. They may mandate masks, social restrictions, quarantines, even shots. However, vaccines and flu shots will not really protect you.

 

Herpes Viruses - Herpesviridae

Nine herpes virus types are known to infect humans (more are suspected to exist): 

- Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, also known as HHV1 and HHV2)

- Varicella-zoster virus (VZV, which may also be called by its ICTV name, HHV-3)

- Epstein–Barr virus (EBV or HHV-4)

- human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV-5)

- human herpe svirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B)

- human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7)

- Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV, also known as HHV-8)

 

The following conditions are caused/contributed to by herpesviridae:

 - Cold sores (HHV-1 and HHV-2)

- Genital herpes (HHV-1 and HHV-2)

- Alzheimers (HHV-1 and HHV-2)

- Bell's Palsy (HHV-1 and HHV-2)

- Trigeminal neuralgia (HHV-1 and HHV-2)

- Ocular herpes/blindness (HHV-1 and HHV-2)

- Chicken pox and shingles (HHV-3)

- Lupus (HHV-3, HHV-4, and HHV-5)

- Hodgkin's Lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HHV-4)

- Burkitt's Lymphoma (HHV-4)

- Acute leukemia (HHV-4)

- Rheumatoid arthritis (HHV-4)

- Sjogren's syndrome (HHV-4)

- Mononucleosis (chronic and acute) (HHV-4 and HHV-5)

- Many cancers and lymphomas (HHV-5)

- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) (HHV-4 is a leading culprit)

- Some forms of Hepatitis (HHV-5)

- Coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis (HHV-5)

- Multiple sclerosis (HHV-4 and HHV-6)

- Roseola infantum (infant's rash) (HHV-6)

- Disorders of the immune system associated with AIDS (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, HHV-9)

- Kaposi's sarcoma (skin cancers in AIDS patients) (HHV-8)

 

Further, immunosuppressed individuals are very susceptible to:

 - Pneumonia (secondary infection)

- Liver disease

- CMV retinitis

 

Candida Albicans Yeast Overgrowth Infection

Also, a majority of people in western societies have an overgrowth of Candida Albicans and other yeasts and fungi stressing the body. Candida is a resident in the human digestive tract that can expand its presence when fed by excessive carbohydrates, especially when there is a reduced level of friendly "probiotic" bacteria.

Overuse of antibiotics, and over consumption of sugar and white flour foods are major reasons why Candida overgrowth yeast infection is widespread. Candida yeast is known to be a cause or contributor to many nagging health problems, including:

acne; digestive disorders; allergies: sinus congestion; susceptibility to colds and infections; female problems; inflammation; athlete's foot; nail fungus; rashes; and blood sugar imbalances and related symptoms, such as foggy mind, anxiety, headaches, and much more.

It is very important to your health to control yeast overgrowth if it is present.

Click here to read more about yeast overgrowth.

 

IMPORTANT NOTE: At the start of taking either the raw larrea or the extract, it is recommended to use just one capsule the first day or two to test for a cleansing reaction. There could be a temporary feeling of discomfort or other signs of waste materials being eliminated.

If there is such a result, it is considered advisable by those in the know to consume plenty of water and a mild diet, perhaps also using a strong probiotic supplement, a silver supplement, and other herbs and supplements to clear yeast and their toxins. You can occasionally test one capsule of larrea for evidence of an elimination reaction, then add another capsule when the reaction is reduced enough.

 

More About Larrea

Larrea tridentata is a shrub, also known as chaparral and "creosote bush", that is indigenous to deserts of the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico. It has been used by many people with various conditions as diverse as arthritis, diarrhea, tuberculosis, colds, bronchitis, venereal disease, herpes, cancer and bowel cramps.

The extremely bitter taste of the larrea leaves prevents animals from grazing upon it, and it does not burn easily. It is regarded as one of the most adaptable of all the United States desert plants as it grows in depleted soil and can survive for long periods of time without rainfall.

 

Other Names For Larrea -- "Chaparral" and "Shegoi"

Native American Indians of the southwest named the larrea plant "Shegoi", meaning "Mother of all plants". They long ago discovered this helpful resource and used it for many conditions from respiratory ailments to arthritis. It was revered as their most important medicinal herb, calling it their "Medicine Chest".

This plant plays a prominent role in the creation stories of the Pima tribe.  They believe that Larrea was the first plant placed on the Earth by the creator, shortly after the planet itself was created.

As it turns out, modern science has, in a way, confirmed the legend of the Pimas. Recently, it has been verified that Larrea is indeed among the oldest living plants in the world. Some currently living Larrea plants actually started growing about 12,000 years ago, shortly after the glaciers retreated during the last ice age.

Also known as chaparral, the larrea plant has perfectly adapted to survive for many thousands of years in severe conditions that can greatly challenge the survival of a human within just hours. Larrea thrives in desert regions such as Death Valley, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert and other harsh, dry areas in the southwest U.S.A.

 

Benefits of Larrea

Native Americans used larrea for a variety of ailments from the common cold to arthritis. It is said to have analgesic, expectorant, as well as strong anti-inflammatory properties.

Larrea has a high antioxidant content, which can protect against the cell damage that leads to cancer. It is also used for many skin disorders because of these same properties.

Here are some of the benefits for which the larrea tridentata herb is historically known:

~ supports natural defenses      
~ supports a healthy nervous system
~ sustains joint health               
~ preserves skin health
~ helps the body's immune system to recover from stress
~ highly effective anti-inflammatory
~ helps the body to fight virus replication
~ has been used and appreciated by those with:
 

  - Arthritis, Rheumatism               - Colds, Flu, Bronchitis

  - Pain, Sores, Inflammation         - Cold Sores

  - Digestive Disorders                    - Allergies

  - Bowel Cramps                             - Chicken Pox

  - Diarrhea                                      - Tuberculosis

  - Irritable Bowel Syndrome           - Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

  - Shingles                                      - Epstein Barr

  - Herpes                                        - Bells Palsy

  - Venereal disease                        - Cancer       

  - Eczema, Psoriases                     - Viral warts                

Larrea has antioxidant lignans in it that are known for relieving discomfort and for anti-aging properties. When applied topically to the skin, larrea is said to be helpful for cold sores, blisters, eczema, psoriasis and contact dermatitis.

 

Many ethno-botanical uses of the leaves and twigs of the Creosote bush (larrea) are found this resource:

https://opuntiads.com/oblog/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Creosote-Home-Remedies.pdf

Most of this information is also found in the book Treating Herpes Naturally.

 

 

Uses                                                                    Reference

Acne, psoriasis and dandruff                          Estudillo and Hinojosa (1988) and Brent (1999)

Allergic problems                                             Brinker (1993)

Altered blood pressure                                     Argueta (1994) and Sheikh et al. (1997)

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory                  Timmermann (1977), Argueta (1994), Kay (1996) and Tyler & Foster (1999)

Anemia                                                              Argueta (1994)

Antiamoebic                                                     Brent (1999) and Segura (1978)

Antibiotic                                                          Mabry et al. (1979a) and Argueta (1994)

Antifungic                                                         Mabry et al. (1979a), Barragan et al. (1994) & Brent (1999) 

Antineoplasic                                                   Sheikh et al. (1997) and Tyler and Foster (1999)

Antiseptic                                                         Timmermann (1977), Mabry et al. (1979b), Argueta (1994), Kay (1996) and

                                                                            Lara  & Marquez (1996)

Antiviral                                                           Brent (1999)

Arthritis and rheumatism                             Mabry et al. (1979b), Brinker (1993), Argueta (1994), Lara and Marquez (1996)

                                                                                            and Tyler & Foster (1999)

Blood purifier                                                  Sheikh et al. (1997)

Bowel cramps and inflammation                Mabry et al. (1979b) and Tyler & Foster (1999)

Bronchitis                                                        Timmermann (1977) and Sheikh et al. (1997)

Burns                                                                Sheikh et al. (1997) and Brent (1999)

Chicken pox                                                     Timmermann (1977) and Sheikh et al. (1997)

Cicatrization, bruises and hemorrhoids       Argueta (1994)

Cold, cough and influenza                             Argueta (1994), Brent (1999) and Tyler & Foster (1999)

Contraceptive agent (roots of the plant)     Moser (1970) and Argueta (1994)

Cramping                                                         Brinker (1993)

Diabetes                                                           Winkelman (1989) and Argueta (1994)

Diseases of the liver, and as a liver tonic    Sheikh et al. (1997) and Brent (1999)

Dysuria                                                             Mart´ınez (1969) and Lara & Marquez (1996) ´

Diuretic                                                             Mabry et al. (1979b) and Tyler & Foster (1999)

Emetic                                                               Mabry et al. (1979b) and Tyler & Foster (1999)

Gallbladder stones                                          Diaz (1976)

Headache                                                         Argueta (1994)

Kidney stones                                                   Diaz (1976)

Kidney pain and cystitis                                  Mart´ınez (1969)

Menstrual pain, vaginal inflammation         Estudillo & Hinojosa (1988), Argueta (1994), Brent (1999)

Neuritis and sciatica                                       Timmermann (1977) and Mabry et al. (1979b)

Parasites                                                           Mabry et al. (1979a) and Brinker (1993)

Snakebite pain, cutaneous disorders           Nellesen (1997), Sheikh et al. (1997) and Brent (1999)

Sterility                                                             Estudillo and Hinojosa (1988) and Argueta (1994)

Stomach pain and diarrhea                           Argueta (1994) and Sheikh et al. (1997)

Toothache                                                        Brent (1999)

Tuberculosis                                                     Timmermann (1977) and Tyler and Foster (1999)

Ulcer and indigestion                                     Argueta (1994)

Urinary tract infections, venereal disease  Timmermann (1977), Mabry et al. (1979b), Brent (1999)

Weight-loss                                                       Sheikh et al. (1997)

  

Other ailments improved by Larrea use:

- Insulin resistance

- Very high cholesterol

 

"Chaparral contains a potent antioxidant constituent that probably accounts for its observed anticancer action. Chaparral has been the subject of a few studies that have resulted in both tumor regression and tumor stimulation. Chaparral has also been used as an antihistamine and as an anti-inflammatory."

- "Complementary Cancer Therapies: Combining Traditional and Alternative Approaches for the Best Possible Outcome" by Dan Labriola

 

What Is NDGA?

"Chaparral contains an ingredient called nor-dihihydroguairetic (NDGA), a potent antitumor agent. NDGA inhibits aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (the energy-producing ability) of cancer cells. The flavonoids present in chaparral have strong antiviral and antifungal properties."

- Herbal Medicine, Healing and Cancer: A Comprehensive Program for Prevention and Treatment, by Donald R. Yance, j r.,C.N., M.H., A.H.G., with Arlene Valentine

NDGA is a powerful antioxidant that has been widely used in the food industry as a preservative for lard and animal shortenings. Early studies raised hopes that NDGA might prove to be an effective agent for some forms of cancer, when it was revealed that NDGA was able to inhibit the growth of some cancer cells in animals.

In the Merck Manual, a highly regarded medical book, this chemical is listed as an anti-oxidant, and its therapeutic category is an anti-neoplastic. Broadly, an anti-neoplastic is defined as an agent that prevents the development, growth and proliferation of malignant cells.

"There is a variety of some 2.5 million herbs categorized as cytotoxic (toxic to cancer cells). These herbs date back some 5,000 years. At least 3,000 of these herbs have anti-cancer properties of some kind."

- Defeat Cancer, by Gregory, A. Gore

 

"Evidence shows that some people with certain types of cancer in certain stages of development may benefit from Chaparral, but it is not clear who may benefit, which cancers are most susceptible or at which stage of cancer development the herb is most effective. One study in rats found that NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), the purported active principle in Chaparral, produced almost complete inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis and respiration in some kinds of cancer cells while normal cells were not affected."

- "The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine: How to Remedy and Prevent Disease with Herbs, Vitamins, Minerals and Other Nutrients", by Daniel B. Mowrey, Ph.D.

 

"NDGA, a compound found in chaparral, is a powerful antioxidant that helps to prevent the kind of cell damage that can lead to cancer. It also has an anti-tumor effect. Chaparral is used as a mouthwash to prevent cavities. Benefits of chaparral for specific health conditions include the following: Arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome. The major traditional use of chaparral in Mexican herbalism is as a bath or liniment to relieve the inflammation and pain of arthritis, sometimes in combination with osha."

- Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use A-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies, by Phyllis A. Balch, CNC

 

"Another herb in question is chaparral. People take it because it contains NDGA (nordihydroquaiatetic acid), a strong antioxidant and anti-cancer agent. Herb industry surveys show that more than 200 tons were sold in the United States between 1970 and 1990. And during this time, there was not a single complaint of side effects arising from the use of this herb. When two to three cups of chaparral tea or the isolated NDGA were given daily to more than 50 cancer patients, the only side effects were occasional nausea or diarrhea. Very large doses resulted in lowered blood pressure."

- Herbs for Health and Healing, by Kathi Keville

 

History and Scientific Development

Larrea Tridentata is the botanical designation of the creosote bush or chaparral. It is a plant that is indigenous to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It has been a common health aid among native Americans of the southwest for thousands of years.
 
Scientific analysis has revealed beneficial phytochemicals in the larrea tridentata herb. These compounds include powerful antioxidants that enhance the body's natural defenses and a substance that assists in combating invaders of the body.

The fact this waxy-leaved bush can thrive in the harsh desert and dominate it's neighbors without being eaten or infected is testimonial to the potency of its chemical arsenal.

This desert chaparral plant indeed has something that we can use for better health. Research has identified dozens of special antioxidant lignans and flavonoids in chaparral, which act as cellular enhancers, with antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial qualities. They also discovered a powerful antioxidant called NDGA.

Cancer researchers first became interested when an 85 year old man eliminated a facial cancer by consuming chaparral. Scientists at the University of Nevada investigated the activity of NDGA and found that it was a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial enzymes, which in turn inhibits cancer growth. While no clinical data exists to support using chaparral for cancer therapy, thousands of testimonials credit it for tumor remissions and other improvements.

"In 1959, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) was informed through lay correspondence that several cancer patients claimed beneficial effects on their cancers from drinking chaparral tea. Years later, a similar treatment was brought to the attention of physicians at the University of Utah, when an 85-year-old man with a proven malignant melanoma of the right cheek with a large cervical metastasis refused surgery and treated himself with chaparral tea. Eight months later he returned with marked regression of the tumor."

- "Guide to Popular Natural Products" by Ara Dermarderosian

 

"The chaparral (Larrea tridentata) that grows over hundreds of square miles in Arizona and California contains a powerful antioxidant called NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid). NDGA was used to prevent oxidation from spoiling foods during World War II. It appears to work against cancer cells by preventing them from "eating" the blood sugar they need to survive - in other words, it starves them to death. Chaparral also contains polysaccharides, which stimulate the immune system."

- "Sam Biser's Save Your Life Collection: A Layman's Course in Curing Last-Stage Diseases", by Sam Biser

Medical evidence indicates chaparral has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial compounds, as well as components helpful with asthma. Research continues to uncover it's mode of action and other potential therapeutic uses.

Recently, researchers at Arizona State University found that chaparral demonstrates strong antiviral activity.

 

Tested and Used By Physicians and Athletes
Larrea products have been offered to patients by holistic oriented doctors for the great benefits and relief it can bring. Also a number of sports teams have utilized larrea as an anti-inflammatory for players.
 
 
How It Works
The compounds in larrea tridentata work together in reducing viral, bacterial and yeast problems in three ways.
1) Anti-replication -- The replication of viruses is interrupted so new generations are blocked from production. Also negative effects of viruses and other invaders are reduced by certain flavonoids naturally in larrea.
 
2) Cellular improvement -- Antioxidants from the larrea plant help cells function better and make them less susceptible to viral takeover or to the toxic byproducts of viruses, bacteria and yeast.  (Other antioxidant sources are helpful as well.)
 
3) Immune strength -- Other compounds in larrea are stimulants to the immune system functions, improving resistance to invaders. Further, some larrea compounds are antiseptic, helping eliminate bacteria and yeast.
Larrea may have an advantage over drug therapy for treatment of viruses by inhibiting the viral genes without damaging your living cells. Drugs work by interfering with the reproduction of viral DNA, but also inhibit synthesis of your own DNA, which suppresses your immune system. Larrea seems to attack the virus and enforce the immune system with antioxidant flavonoids.
 
Larrea is also reduces inflammation and pain. Athletes have been known to use it for this quality.
 
People with cancer also use larrea for the help it provides them.
 
 
Vitamin C Enhances Effectiveness
It is recommended that vitamin C be taken with larrea for better results. Vitamin C has been shown to improve the benefits from larrea, and reduce any reaction to  irritant compounds in raw larrea.
 
The combination of vitamin C and  antioxidants in the  larrea help prevent free radical damage from invaders and toxins.
 
(NOTE: The larrea extract capsules are made with an appropriate amount of vitamin C in them for these purposes.)
 
 
How Much & How Long
It would be better to start with just one capsule of larrea, whether the raw herb or the extract, for the first day or two to test whether there will be a cleansing reaction. (See the section above about candida yeast overgrowth.)
 
If there is an active issue to deal with, up to 4 capsules per day can be taken for a while to get a jump on improvement. Then reduce to 2 capsules per day. 
 
There are compounds in larrea that interfere with the replication of viruses earlier in their cycle than antiviral drugs. The sooner that replication is interrupted, the less irritation and unpleasantness there may be.
 
There could be a number of viral cells present in the body, some active, some dormant, as well as multiple bacteria and fungi. It is wise to take larrea for a few months to help in dealing with all types and phases of various microbes.
 
It is a good idea to keep larrea on hand for use when a cold, flu or infection tries to manifest.
 
As an alternative to the Larreastat lotion that used to be available, the larrea formula powder can be removed from the capsule and moistened to apply topically as a paste, or mixed with coconut oil and cooled to apply as a salve. with a cotton gauze bandage as a cover, for issues on the skin.
 
 
Concern About The Liver
After allegations in 1992 of liver toxicity associated with chaparral larrea consumption, manufacturers voluntarily restricted sales until the reports were investigated. Following a lengthy review, a panel of medical experts concluded "no clinical data was found . . . to indicate chaparral is inherently a hepatic toxin." In late 1994 this report was submitted to the FDA and the product was subsequently given a clean bill of health.
 
After comparing the quantity of chaparral consumed each year to the number of product complaints, industry regulators concluded chaparral does not pose a significant threat to consumer safety.
 
Nonetheless, the raw unprocessed chaparral larrea has quinone and other terpenoid compounds in it that could accumulate in the body with excessive use, causing the liver to work harder. We suggest that every six to eight weeks users take a break of a week or so from consuming the raw larrea. It would also be wise to utilize other herbs for cleansing as well as antioxidants and foods that support the liver.
 
The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), recommends the following statement be put on all chaparral product labels:

"Seek advice from a health practitioner before use if you have had, or may have had liver disease. Discontinue use if nausea, fever, fatigue, or jaundice occurs."

additional resources

 

At long last a replacement for the original formerly patented larrea extract is NOW AVAILABLE!

Chaparral larrea has been used for thousands of years by native Americans and many others, which is an indication of its effectiveness.

Larreastat was the trade name for the patented extract of larrea tridentata developed decades ago. In the past it had four patents on the process. of preparation. (This extract was originally called "Virastatin" and later changed to "Larreastat".)

We had sold that product for about 14 years, ever since it was marketed to the public, but it has not been available for several years. The patent owner had repeated difficulties getting the LarreaRx products manufactured properly.

 

Comparison

The extract is concentrated, and some compounds that are potentially irritating with long term use of the raw herb are eliminated in preparing the extract.

Raw Larrea Tridentata involves risk to the liver because it contains  Nordihydroguaiaretic   Acid   Quinone   (NDGA   quinone). This   is   a   terpenoid   that can irritate  the liver under long-term use.  Since most patients  with Herpesviridae require high dosage and long-term use of the supplement, this is a significant problem.

The   above-mentioned   patents   describe   the   process   in   detail   to   reduce   the   NDGA   quinone   in Larrea, and concentrate the harmless and very effective NDGA compound, the active ingredient in the anti-viral action without the quinone.

The manufacturing is not a difficult process, but the process needs to be done correctly to ensure the concentrated extract does not have appreciable levels of NDGA quinone.

A definitive comparison of the raw whole chaparral larrea herb with the extract has never been conducted. A "rule of thumb" for quantity would be about 2 or 3 capsules of chaparral larrea in place of 1 capsule of the concentrated extract.

People have taken 4 to 6 capsules per day of raw Chaparral larrea, or 2 to 3 capsules of extract (spread through the day) for several days if needed. It is suggested that vitamin C be taken with the raw Chaparral larrea to both enhance effectiveness and prevent formation of the irritant quinone.

Safety and Toxicology Report

(NOTE: The former Penetrating Spray as well as the Cold Sore Lotion that the LarreaRx brand had are not now available.)

For combating bothersome microbes, it is also suggested you consider our advanced silver products and other immune support.

 

More Information
If you would like more information or have questions, contact us.
 

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Additional Resources

Verastegui, M., Sanchez, C., Heredia, N., Garcia, J., 1996. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of three major plants from the Chihuahuan desert. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52, 175-177.                                                                                                                          

Whitford, W.G., Nielson, R., De Soyza, A., 2001. Establishment and effects of creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, on a Chihuahuan Desert watershed. Journal of Arid Environments 47, 1-10.                                                                                                                              

Whiting, P., Coluston, A., Kerlin, P., 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. The Medical Journal of Australia 117, 440-443.                                                                                                                                                     

Willensen, M., 2000. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibition: a new treatment strategy for Sjogren-Larsson syndrome. Neuropediatrics 31, 1-3.

Winkelman, M., 1989. Ethnobotanical treatments of diabetes in Baja California Norte. Medical Anthropology 11, 255-268.

Xue, H., Lu, Z., Konno, C., Soejarto, D., Cordell, G., Fong, H., Hodgson, W., 1988. 3-(3,4-Dihydrixycinnamoyl)-erythrodiol and 3-(4- hydroxycinnamoyl)-erythrodiol from Larrea tridentata. Phytochemistry 27, 233-235.                                                                            

Zang, L., Cosma, G., Gardner, H., Starks, K., Shi, X., Vallyathan, V., 1999. Scavenging of superoxide anion radical by chaparral. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 196, 157-161.